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The animal was 157cm. long and weighed 1010gr ; the observations here reported were begun on June 26 and ended on July 9, 19 7, in the outdoor snake terrarium of the Psychological Institute of the Imperial University of Keijo. The diagram of the terrarium is illustrated below.
 
The real size of each part in fig. I is as follows : ab : be : cd : de : ea = 260 : 345 : 175: 90 : 316cm. The numerals in figs. 2 and 3 should also be read in cm. The walls are made of zinc-sheet and as high as 135cm. , their top being crooked down inward by 15cm. as shown in fig. 2 (b) to prevent the animal from climbing over it. At the northwestern corner and 11cm. above the ground, there is an entrance door, D, 65 •~ 122cm. , as shown in fig. 2 (a) ; its surface also made of zincsheet is set three centimeters back from that of the wall, A brass catch is equipped 70cm. above the lower edge of the door •kfigs. 2 (a) and 3•l it is 10cm. long and 4cm. apart from the wall end, but on July 2 it was removed to a new position x as illustrated in fig. 3. P is a pond 153 x 92 x 64 and its depth of water was only 2cm. at the time of observation.
 
June 26. Fine. A little alteration was given to the terrarium formerly used for tortoises and I put into it about . 1 o'clock in the afternoon the snake above mentioned together with some smaller ones belonging to Elaphe rufodorsata and Natrix tigrina lateralis. It made an escape from it between 3.00 and 4.00 p.m. but it was found soon on a cherry-tree about 50cm. south-west of the terrarium and in the adjacent hen-house the roof of which made of the wire net was 55cm. higher than the top of its wall. The branches of the tree covered the wire roof of the hen-house and, therefore, the animal could easily go from the the top of the wall to the tree clibming over the roof. It was taken down and shut up in a feeding box in the laboratory.
 
June 29. Fine after rain. Seeing that the animal was fled into the pond of the terrarium at 12.40 p. m. the author inspected it stealthily from the laboratory window. The sky cleared up at about 1.30. It began to move at 1.35 and landed 5 minutes later from the southwest corner of the pond, there being a stepstone for tortoises to crawl up. It soon hid under a strawmat and never appeared. At 4.00 it was driven by the author out of the mat with a long stick stretched out from the window. It went along the wall to the northwestern corner and tried in vain to climb up though it could stanl straight almost as high as 100cm. against the right-angled walls. Between 5.30 and 6.30 when he was absent for his supper, it again took to flight and
was found to be on the cherry-tree.. It. was immediately replaced in the terrarium. A 100 watt electric bulb was furnished in the northwestern corner about 100 centimeters above the ground and the observation was continued. It commenced to creep at 8.15 exploring along the wall and at last succeeded to thrust itself between the catch of the door and the wall ; at 8.40 after a skillful climbing-up struggle for about 5 minutes using its tail most effectively (plates 1 and 2), its head reached the top of the bending edge of the wall and soon lifted half of its body over the wall. Again it was placed down at once
into the terrarium. Since it seemed a little tired and could not move until 12.40 a.m. of the next day (30th), it was 'confined in a small box placed in it,
 
July 1. Fine. At 6.00 p.m. the animal was set free from the box. It did not move for a long time. At 9.40 it succeeded to run away from the same place by just the same means as before. It was put down at once. Hiding under the mat, it never came out. Though it was driven out, it remained quite motionless. It succeeded a third time at 1.30 a.m. (July 2) in a similar manner. Its body posture is indicated in plates 1 and 2, the latter showing the pose which was seen at about one minute's lapse after the former. It was then shut up likewise as before in the box.
 
July 2. The catch on the door was removed to a new place x as illustrated in fig. 3 in order to make it unable for the animal to climb up along the wall, the space between the catch and the edge of the wall being changed from 4 cm. to 9 cm. It was set free from the box at 3.00 p.m. Betraying the supposition of the observer, it escaped cleverly between 5.00 and 8.00 p.m. and absolutely no route of flight could be traced anywhere.
 
July 4. In the morning it showered very hard, but in the afternoon it cleared up. About 4.00 p.m. the observer out near the terrarium met with Mr. SAI TO ZYU, a school guard, on his round of inspection and told how the animal escaped from the fence on July 2. Then all at once Mr. SAI noticed that a Chinese magpie was cawing in a low cherry-tree near a pile of the newly cut branches of a planetree about 30 feet to the south of the terrarium and that sparrows were also chirping in crowds near it. He at once said intuitively that the snake must be near that tree. The observer drew nearer doubting at first but astonished at fiuding th3 missing snake in safety on the pile of the branches. It had often previously been observed that a crowd of sparrows flew away from the terrarium. It was captured after an absence of about 24 hours and again was shut up in a feeding box in the laboratory.
 
July 9. Fine. The animal was -Liken into the terrarium at 9.20 in the morning. As it lay still in the shade of the wall, it woe forced to crawl about with a stick at 9.30. It went along the wall first to the west, then to the north, and at last to the east, It began to climb up the door as usual supporting itself in such a way as shown in fig. 4. on a catch removed and succeeded to place the bead on the top of the wall at 9.88, being, however, soon after put down. It started to climb up again at 9.40 in another way illustrated in fig. 5.
 
It lifted its body by degrees pushing itself earnestly on the concrete margin of the pond and at length succeeded to get away at 9.55. From these o servations, it could probably be supposed that the animal had run away by the same method as above stated on July 2, too. Such being the case, the catch was then transferred to the middle of the upper end of the door as was shown as x' in fig,. 4 and the observation was continued. The animal tried bard to climb up several times in succession at the door first and then at some corners, but all was of no use.
 
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS.
1). The snake, Elaphe schrenckii, has an apparent tendency of learning.
2). Some biological connections could be supposed between the snake and the Chinese magpie or sparrows.
3). a. An ideal outdoor snake terrarium should be made round or oval with a perpendicular, thoroughly even wall made of the zincsheet or painted board.
b. The terrarium with right-angled corners which was formerly used for tortoises is not at all suitable, for they supply cues to escape by supporting the body against two walls when they are not quite high.
c. The entrance door and the wall must be almost on the same plane.
d. The height of the wall must at least be the same or almost five-sixths of the whole length of the animal in accordance to the absence or presence of the crooked top, but a lower wall will suffice when the fence is made round.
e. As the terrarium becomes very hot in the daytime when the summer sun is shining, it needs must be vast enough with a water
pool and grass or weeds in it.
f. Some trees which give comfortable shades all or partly over it in the neighbourhood are also desirable.
g. Some hiding places for snakes are necessary to be constructed.
 
Snakes and frogs in the same terrarium.
 
July 9. Cloudy. At 7.30 p.m. two Bombina orientalis, four Rana nigromacalata, and a Bufo bufo asiatieus were put in the terrarium together with an Elaphe sehrenekii (STRAUCH), an Elaphe rulodorsata (CANTOR), and six Natrix tigrina lateralis (BERTHOLD) to examine the behavior both of snakes and frogs. To facilita4e the observation, a bamhoo-cage and a strawm at were taken out of the terrarium, and the observer found a Bombina orientalis put there a few days ago at that time, thus there were three Bombina orienialis in all. No sooner than a Bombina j u mped, a Natri.), bit at it and tried to swallow it, but after a struggle of 13.5 minutes he at length brought it out of his mouth. Another Natrix tried once to bite at the hip o1.a) Bufo but it soon retraced turning away. Just when it was made to place the bitten Bonibina into the water of the pond with a stick, the frog was bit after only a jump by an Elaphe rufo. The snake coiled its long body up on the frog, but stopped biting after about 12.5 minutes. At 8.10 a Natrix tried an attack on another Bo bina without biting and the frog itself lay motionless from fear. At 8.15 it began to rain a little. The Bufo was forced to move by the observer and two Natrix made an attack at once but soon turned back slowly. The Bufo lifted its back high straightening its hind legs, drooped its head down, and showed a queer attitude of restraint. At 8.25, and 8.30 again the Elaphe rufo. bit at a leg of its captured animal. At 8.42 a Rana was caught by a Natrix. After a struggle for a prey between two Natrrx, it was swallowed at 8.56 by a larger one. At 8.45 the Elaphe rufo. at length swallowed up the poor Rombina. At 9.29 a Natrix bit at a Bombina, swallowed it after two minutes but brought out again at 10.00. The frog jumped away, while the snake opened its mouth widely and twsted its body in seeming distress. Another Natrix overtook this frog but never tried to bite. Until 11.00 p.m. there was no accident, and the frogs caught by the snakes during these four and a half hours were only two. The animals left living were two Bombina, three Rana and a Bufo.
 
July 10. Fine. Exploring all over the terrarium at 1.00 p.m, I found that one Bombina, one Bana, and a Bafo remained alive. It was the same at 4.00 p.m.
July 11. Fine. Only one Bufo was found at 1.00 p.m.
July 12. Fine. A new Bufo was taken into the terrarium. There were two in all.
July 13. Fine. Two animals were found in safety.
July 14. Fine. There was no change at all.
 
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS.
1). In the Elaphe schrencki it was never seen that he tries to catch the frog, as was already pointed out by Mr. HIRONOBU DOI.(Thin, 1934, No. 3, p. 23).
2). Within observations here done, the Natrix can not eat the Bombina, but the Elaphe rufo. apparently can ; and two Bombina lost afterwards would have perhaps been eaten by this snake.
3). Korean tradition says that the Bombina has s inc severe poison, and the fact above mentioned suggests some different mechanism in the Natrix and the Elaphe rufo.
4). The Elaphe rufo, alone coils its body when a prey is caught.
5). All the ,snakes here stated dare not at all to attack the Bubo.
6). It was found accidentally that the Elaphe rufo and the Natrix can eat loaches lying alive or half dead on the ground
The animal was 157cm. long and weighed 1010gr ; the observations here reported were begun on June 26 and ended on July 9, 19 7, in the outdoor snake terrarium of the Psychological Institute of the Imperial University of Keijo. The diagram of the terrarium is illutrated below


The real size of each part in fig. I is as follows : ab : be : cd : de : ea = 260 : 345 : 175: 90 : 316cm. The numerals in figs. 2 and 3 should also be read in cm. The walls are made of zinc-sheet and as high as 135cm. , their top being crooked down inward by 15cm. as shown in fig. 2 (b) to prevent the animal from climbing over it. At the northwestern corner and 11cm. above the ground, there is an entrance door, D, 65 •~ 122cm. , as shown in fig. 2 (a) ; its surface also made of zincsheet is set three centimeters back from that of the wall, A brass catch is equipped 70cm. above the lower edge of the door •kfigs. 2 (a) and 3•l it is 10cm. long and 4cm. apart from the wall end, but on July 2 it was removed to a new position x as illustrated in fig. 3. P is a pond 153 x 92 x 64 and its depth of water was only 2cm. at the time of observation.

June 26. Fine. A little alteration was given to the terrarium formerly used for tortoises and I put into it about . 1 o'clock in the afternoon the snake above mentioned together with some smaller ones belonging to Elaphe rufodorsata and Natrix tigrina lateralis. It made an escape from it between 3.00 and 4.00 p.m. but it was found soon on a cherry-tree about 50cm. south-west of the terrarium and in the adjacent hen-house the roof of which made of the wire net was 55cm. higher than the top of its wall. The branches of the tree covered the wire roof of the hen-house and, therefore, the animal could easily go from the the top of the wall to the tree clibming over the roof. It was taken down and shut up in a feeding box in the laboratory.

June 29. Fine after rain. Seeing that the animal was fled into the pond of the terrarium at 12.40 p. m. the author inspected it stealthily from the laboratory window. The sky cleared up at about 1.30. It began to move at 1.35 and landed 5 minutes later from the southwest corner of the pond, there being a stepstone for tortoises to crawl up. It soon hid under a strawmat and never appeared. At 4.00 it was driven by the author out of the mat with a long stick stretched out from the window. It went along the wall to the northwestern corner and tried in vain to climb up though it could stanl straight almost as high as 100cm. against the right-angled walls. Between 5.30 and 6.30 when he was absent for his supper, it again took to flight andwas found to be on the cherry-tree.. It. was immediately replaced in the terrarium. A 100 watt electric bulb was furnished in the northwestern corner about 100 centimeters above the ground and the observation was continued. It commenced to creep at 8.15 exploring along the wall and at last succeeded to thrust itself between the catch of the door and the wall ; at 8.40 after a skillful climbing-up struggle for about 5 minutes using its tail most effectively (plates 1 and 2), its head reached the top of the bending edge of the wall and soon lifted half of its body over the wall. Again it was placed down at onceinto the terrarium. Since it seemed a little tired and could not move until 12.40 a.m. of the next day (30th), it was 'confined in a small box placed in it,

July 1. Fine. At 6.00 p.m. the animal was set free from the box. It did not move for a long time. At 9.40 it succeeded to run away from the same place by just the same means as before. It was put down at once. Hiding under the mat, it never came out. Though it was driven out, it remained quite motionless. It succeeded a third time at 1.30 a.m. (July 2) in a similar manner. Its body posture is indicated in plates 1 and 2, the latter showing the pose which was seen at about one minute's lapse after the former. It was then shut up likewise as before in the box.



July 2. The catch on the door was removed to a new place x as illustrated in fig. 3 in order to make it unable for the animal to climb up along the wall, the space between the catch and the edge of the wall being changed from 4 cm. to 9 cm. It was set free from the box at 3.00 p.m. Betraying the supposition of the observer, it escaped cleverly between 5.00 and 8.00 p.m. and absolutely no route of flight could be traced anywhere.

July 4. In the morning it showered very hard, but in the afternoon it cleared up. About 4.00 p.m. the observer out near the terrarium met with Mr. SAI TO ZYU, a school guard, on his round of inspection and told how the animal escaped from the fence on July 2. Then all at once Mr. SAI noticed that a Chinese magpie was cawing in a low cherry-tree near a pile of the newly cut branches of a planetree about 30 feet to the south of the terrarium and that sparrows were also chirping in crowds near it. He at once said intuitively that the snake must be near that tree. The observer drew nearer doubting at first but astonished at fiuding th3 missing snake in safety on the pile of the branches. It had often previously been observed that a crowd of sparrows flew away from the terrarium. It was captured after an absence of about 24 hours and again was shut up in a feeding box in the laboratory.

July 9. Fine. The animal was -Liken into the terrarium at 9.20 in the morning. As it lay still in the shade of the wall, it woe forced to crawl about with a stick at 9.30. It went along the wall first to the west, then to the north, and at last to the east, It began to climb up the door as usual supporting itself in such a way as shown in fig. 4. on a catch removed and succeeded to place the bead on the top of the wall at 9.88, being, however, soon after put down. It started to climb up again at 9.40 in another way illustrated in fig. 5.
It lifted its body by degrees pushing itself earnestly on the concrete margin of the pond and at length succeeded to get away at 9.55. From these o servations, it could probably be supposed that the animal had run away by the same method as above stated on July 2, too. Such being the case, the catch was then transferred to the middle of the upper end of the door as was shown as x' in fig,. 4 and the observation was continued. The animal tried bard to climb up several times in succession at the door first and then at some corners, but all was of no use.




GENERAL CONCLUSIONS.

1). The snake, Elaphe schrencki has an apparent tendency of learning.
2). Some biological connections could be supposed between the snake and the Chinese magpie or sparrows.
3). a. An ideal outdoor snake terrarium should be made round or oval with a perpendicular, thoroughly even wall made of the zincsheet or painted board.
b. The terrarium with right-angled corners which was formerly used for tortoises is not at all suitable, for they supply cues to escape by supporting the body against two walls when they are not quite high
.c. The entrance door and the wall must be almost on the same plane.
d. The height of the wall must at least be the same or almost five-sixths of the whole length of the animal in accordance to the absence or presence of the crooked top, but a lower wall will suffice when the fence is made round.
e. As the terrarium becomes very hot in the daytime when the summer sun is shining, it needs must be vast enough with a waterpool and grass or weeds in it
.f. Some trees which give comfortable shades all or partly over it in the neighbourhood are also desirable.
g. Some hiding places for snakes are necessary to be constructed.


Snakes and frogs in the same terrarium.

July 9. Cloudy. At 7.30 p.m. two Bombina orientalis, four Rana nigromacalata, and a Bufo bufo asiatieus were put in the terrarium together with an Elaphe sehreneki (STRAUCH), an Elaphe rulodorsata (CANTOR), and six Natrix tigrina lateralis (BERTHOLD) to examine the behavior both of snakes and frogs. To facilitate the observation, a bamboo-cage and a straw mat were taken out of the terrarium, and the observer found a Bombina orientalis put there a few days ago at that time, thus there were three Bombina orienialis in all. No sooner than a Bombina jumped, a Natrix.), bit at it and tried to swallow it, but after a struggle of 13.5 minutes he at length brought it out of his mouth. Another Natrix tried once to bite at the hip of.a) Bufo but it soon retraced turning away. Just when it was made to place the bitten Bombina into the water of the pond with a stick, the frog was bit after only a jump by an Elaphe rufo. The snake coiled its long body up on the frog, but stopped biting after about 12.5 minutes. At 8.10 a Natrix tried an attack on another Bombina without biting and the frog itself lay motionless from fear. At 8.15 it began to rain a little. The Bufo was forced to move by the observer and two Natrix made an attack at once but soon turned back slowly. The Bufo lifted its back high straightening its hind legs, drooped its head down, and showed a queer attitude of restraint. At 8.25, and 8.30 again the Elaphe rufo. bit at a leg of its captured animal. At 8.42 a Rana was caught by a Natrix. After a struggle for a prey between two Natrrx, it was swallowed at 8.56 by a larger one. At 8.45 the Elaphe rufo. at length swallowed up the poor Rombina. At 9.29 a Natrix bit at a Bombina, swallowed it after two minutes but brought out again at 10.00. The frog jumped away, while the snake opened its mouth widely and twsted its body in seeming distress. Another Natrix overtook this frog but never tried to bite. Until 11.00 p.m. there was no accident, and the frogs caught by the snakes during these four and a half hours were only two. The animals left living were two Bombina, three Rana and a Bufo.

July 10. Fine. Exploring all over the terrarium at 1.00 p.m, I found that one Bombina, one Rana, and a Bufo remained alive. It was the same at 4.00 p.m.
July 11. Fine. Only one Bufo was found at 1.00 p.m.
July 12. Fine. A new Bufo was taken into the terrarium. There were two in all.
July 13. Fine. Two animals were found in safety.
July 14. Fine. There was no change at all.

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

1). In the Elaphe schrencki it was never seen that he tries to catch the frog, as was already pointed out by Mr. HIRONOBU DOI.(Thin, 1934, No. 3, p. 23).
2). Within observations here done, the Natrix can not eat the Bombina, but the Elaphe rufo. apparently can ; and two Bombina lost afterwards would have perhaps been eaten by this snake.
3). Korean tradition says that the Bombina has sinc severe poison, and the fact above mentioned suggests some different mechanism in the Natrix and the Elaphe rufo.
4). The Elaphe rufo, alone coils its body when a prey is caught.
5). All the ,snakes here stated dare not at all to attack the Bubo
6). It was found accidentally that the Elaphe rufo and the Natrix can eat loaches lying alive or half dead on the ground
This site has information on the following genera of Ratsnakes ... Spilotes, Spalerosophis, Ptyas, Zamenis, Elaphe, Rhinechis, Senticolis, Pseudelaphe, Pantherophis, Bogertophis, Orthriophis, Gonyosoma, Oreocryptophis, Oocatochus, Euprepiophis, Coelognathus, Archelaphe